Cynthia R. Arte don y pasión amor por la pintura acrílica Costa Rica Arte-don-y-pasion : 浮世絵 Van Gogh, Monet, Impresionistas y Ukiyo-e (English & Spanish)

lunes, 28 de marzo de 2016

浮世絵 Van Gogh, Monet, Impresionistas y Ukiyo-e (English & Spanish)

Uyiko - e/Estampas Japonesas y su influencia en los Impresionistas.

Ukiyo-e  o estampas japonesas, es un género de grabados realizados mediante xilografía o técnica de grabado en madera, producidos en Japón entre los siglos XVII y XX.

Ukiyo-e, or Japanese prints are made by engraving or woodcut technique, produced in Japan between the seventeenth and twentieth centuries.









En un principio, solo se utilizaba tinta india, y luego algunos impresos eran coloreados de forma manual con pinceles, pero en el siglo XVIII Suzuki Harunobu  desarrolló una técnica de impresión polícroma para reproducirlosEl Ukiyo-e era accesible dado que podía ser producido de forma masiva. Eran los Ukiyo-e. Cada uno de ellos tenía el valor igual a un plato de comida.  Cuando algunas personas no pudieron comprar pinturas por su precio, obtuvieron impresiones de los mismos llegando a ser muy populares. 

At first, only India ink was used, then some prints were manually colored with brushes, but in the XVIII century Suzuki Harunobu developed a printing technique polychromatic to reproduce them. The Ukiyo-e was accessible as it could be produced in bulk. Each of them had a value equal to a meal. When some people could not buy paintings because of their price, they got impressions of Ukiyo-e becoming very popular.






Esta labor requiere una precisión milimétrica y disponer de una buena iluminación; por este motivo, se coloca un frasco de agua delante de una bombilla para armonizar la luz y permitir que se vean los trazos más finos del dibujo que sirve de base para el grabado.  Miren qué excelente idea!

This work requires pinpoint accuracy and have good lighting; For this reason, a bottle of water in front of a light bulb to harmonize and allow the finer lines of the drawing that serves as the basis for engraving look is placed. Look what a great idea!




 Los temas predominantes eran las bellas cortesanas, los luchadores de sumo, actores y escenas de guerra. Más tarde se volvieron muy populares aquellas con paisajes y fueron probibidas las  relacionadas con la política, los individuos de bajo estrato social y el sexo. 

The predominant themes were beautiful courtesans, sumo wrestlers, actors and scenes of war. Later  it became very popular with landscapes and were banned those related to politics, individuals of low social class individuals and sex.

Permitidas/Allowed











Banned/Prohibidas


Japonaiserie  fue el término usado por el pintor holandés del género post -impresionista Vincent Van Gogh  para referirse a la influencia del artés Japonés en el resto del mundo. Antes de 1854 el comercio con Japón fue delimitado a un monopolio Holandés y los productos japoneses importados a Europa eran en su mayoría de porcelana y laca. La Convención de anagawa  marcó un fin para los 200 años de una política exterior japonesa recluida y abrió un vasto comercio entre Japón y Occidente. Muchos de estos productos importados desde Japón llegaron al Occidente envueltos en unos grabados japoneses muy llamativos y detallados que capturaron la atención de Van Gogh, Theo su hermano,  Manet y muchos impresionistas más quienes se dedicaron a coleccionarlos. Por un tiempo Van Gogh y su hermano Theo reunieron cientos de ellas y negociaron con estos grabados, que de hecho, se han conservado hasta hoy en el Museo Van Gogh en Amsterdam.

Japonaiserie was the term used by the Dutch painter Vincent VanGogh  -post impressionist  to refer to the influence of Japanese arts in the world. Before 1854 trade with Japan was delimited to a Dutch monopoly and Japanese products imported into Europe were mostly porcelain and lacquer. Anagawa Convention marked an end to the 200 years of Japanese foreign policy reclusive and opened a vast trade between Japan and the West. Many of these products imported from Japan came to the West wrapped in a very striking and detailed Japanese prints that captured the attention of Van Gogh, his brother Theo, Impressionists Manet and many more who were devoted to collecting them. For a while Van Gogh and his brother Theo collected hundreds of them and negotiated with these prints, in fact, they have been preserved until today in the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.

En una carta de 1888 dirigida a Theo,  Vincent Van Gogh  le comentó:
Sobre nuestra estancia en el sur, aún si es más costoso — Mira, nosotros amamos la pintura japonesa, hemos experimentado su influencia — todos los impresionistas tienen eso en común — [así que por qué no vamos a Japón], en otras palabras, a lo que es equivalente de Japón, el sur? Sigo creyendo que el futuro de las nuevas artes después de todo es el sur.

In a letter of 1888 addressed to Theo, Vincent Van Gogh commented:
On our stay in the south, even if it is more expensive - Look, we love Japanese painting, we have experienced their influence - all the Impressionists have that in common - [so why do not we go to Japan], in other words, which is equivalent to Japan, south? I still believe that the future of the new arts after all is the south.

Un mes después el escribió,
Todo mi trabajo está basado en cierta medida en el arte japonés...
"Y nosotros no podríamos estudiar el arte japonés, o eso me parece, sin ponernos más felices y alegres, haciéndonos regresar a la naturaleza, a pesar de nuestra educación y trabajo en un mundo de costumbres."

A month later he wrote,
All my work is based to some extent on Japanese art ...
"And we could not study Japanese art, or so it seems to me, without getting happier and cheerful, making back to nature, despite our education and work in a world of customs."
"Sólo piensa en esto; acaso no es casi una nueva religión lo que estos japoneses nos enseñan, quienes son tan simples y viven en la naturaleza como si ellos mismos fueran flores?"
"Just think about it, is not it almost a new religion that these Japanese teach us, who are so simple and live in nature as though they themselves were flowers?" awww this Van Gogh was so sweet:)

Influencia sobre Van Gogh



 Van Gogh sketch based on the cover of the magazine Paris Illustré le Japón in the middle, and his painting on the right.

Influencia sobre Manet



Influencia sobre Monet quién coleccionó más de 200 impresiones de Ukiyo-e

 El estudio de las estampas japonesas del siglo XIX, ayudaron al maestro Monet a desarrollar su concepción del impresionismo: el uso de planos lisos de colores brillantes, asimetrías, y calibrando entre lejos y cerca, todo esto le hizo validar a Monet que hay otros modos pictóricos más allá de los tonos frescos armoniosos, las composiciones balanceadas, y los ritmos lentos que están presentes en pinturas de paisajes, anteriores a Monet. El pintor tenía una colección de 250 grabados japoneses dispuestos en su casa de Giverny, cuyos colores, formas y técnicas fascinaban a Monet, especialmente aquellos colores y técnicas encontradas en los grabados de Hiroshige y Hokusai”.

The study of Japanese prints of the nineteenth century, helped the master Monet to develop his conception of Impressionism: the use of flat planes of bright colors, asymmetries, and gauging from far and near, all this made him validate that there are other  pictorial ways beyond cool tones harmonious, balanced compositions, and slow rhythms that are present in paintings of landscapes, before Monet. The painter had a collection of 250 Japanese prints at his home in Giverny, Paris, whose colors, forms and techniques fascinated Monet, especially those  found in the prints of Hokusai and Hiroshige. "







English additional information:
In the 1860s, Ukiyo- e, Japanese wood- block prints  , became a source of inspiration for many European impressionist painters   in France and elsewhere, and eventually for Art Nouveau and Cubism. An essential element of Japanese art, the use of conventional or flat decoration.  Artists were especially affected by the lack of perspective and shadow, the flat areas of strong color, and the compositional freedom gained by placing the subject off-centre, mostly with a low diagonal axis to the background. Ukiyo-e, with its curved lines, patterned surfaces, and contrasting voids and flatness of their picture-plane, also inspired Art Nouveau . Some lines and curve patterns became graphic clichés that were later found in works of artists from all parts of the world. These forms and flat blocks of color were the precursors to abstract art in modernism.






During the Kaei  era (1848–1854), after more than 200 years of seclusion, foreign merchant ships of various nationalities again began to visit Japan. Following the Meiji restoration in 1868, Japan ended a long period of national isolation and became open to imports from the West, including photography and printing techniques. In turn, many Japanese ceramics and Ukiyo-e e prints, followed by Japanese textiles, bronzes, and other arts, came to Europe and America and soon gained popularity. Japonism started with a craze for collecting Japanese art, particularly ukiyo-e, of which some of the first samples were to be seen in Paris. In about 1856 the French artist Félix Bracquemond  first came across a copy of the sketch book Hokusai Manga  at the workshop of his printer; they had been used as packaging for a consignment of porcelain. In 1860 and 1861, black-and-white reproductions of ukiyo-e were published in books about Japan. In 1862, La Porte Chinoise, a shop selling various Japanese goods including prints, opened in the Rue de Rivoli, one of the most fashionable shopping street in Paris, and counted numerous artists from this art circle like James Tissot, among its clients.
In the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867  Japan was represented by its own national pavilion and much more pieces of Japanese art or inspired by it, like the Service Rousseau by Félix Bracquemond, were presented. This presentation greatly enhanced the interest of artists in this art. Several Japanese art dealers subsequently based themselves in Paris, , including Tadamasa Hayashi and lijima Hanjuro. French collectors, writers, and art critics undertook many voyages to Japan in the 1870s and 1880s, leading to the publication of articles about Japanese aesthetics and the increased distribution of Edo era  prints in Europe, especially in France.Although works in all media were influenced, printmaking  was not surprisingly particularly affected, though lithography rather than woodcut was the most popular medium. Not until Félix Valloton and Paul Gauguin   was woodcut itself much used for japonesque works, and then mostly in black and white.
The impressionist painter Claude Monet modeled parts of his garden in Giverny after Japanese elements, such as the bridge over the lily pond, which he painted numerous times. By detailing just on a few select points such as the bridge or the lilies, he was influenced by traditional Japanese visual methods found in ukiyo-e prints, of which he had a large collection. He also planted a large number of native Japanese species to give it a more exotic feeling.
Monet's wife

His home in Giverny.
Monet influenced by Japanese Art.

Do you want to know more about the Japanese Influence on Monet's life, house, gardens and paintings? please read my previous post about his home in Giverny by clicking on this link
Todo sobre la casa de Monet en Giverny, París, cuyos jardines, puente Japonés y tanque de plantas acuáticas fueron inspirados en su admiración por el Arte Japonés.

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